A Rare Drop in Inflation: A closer look at Pakistan’s economic paradox

  • Noor ul Ain Ali
  • Jun 12, 2024

In an unexpected turn of events, Pakistan’s inflation rate has plummeted to 11.8% in May, marking its lowest level in 30 months. This decline comes as a stark contrast to the harrowing days of 2023 when inflation soared between 30% and 49%, at times peaking above 40%. The government attributes this relief to stringent fiscal policies, tight monitoring, and a suite of strategic measures. However, the deeper narrative of Pakistan’s economic health reveals a complex interplay of factors and longstanding structural issues that cannot be overlooked.

Two years ago, Pakistan’s economy was teetering on the brink of recession. The devastating impact of COVID-19 compounded an already fragile economic landscape, leading to an unprecedented surge in petrol and dollar prices, each climbing to nearly 300 PKR. Speculations of an impending default loomed large. Yet, in the face of these adversities, recent government actions, such as maintaining a high interest rate of 22%, controlling imports, and stabilizing the currency, have been credited with the recent inflation drop.

A critical examination, however, underscores that these measures, while stabilizing macroeconomic indicators, have come at a significant cost to the average Pakistani. The reduction in inflation has primarily stemmed from reduced consumer purchasing power, which has plummeted due to the exorbitant prices of essential commodities over the past two years. This is a bittersweet victory; while prices of items like cars, mobile phones, and real estate have decreased, it reflects a depressed market where consumer spending is severely constrained.

Pakistan’s economic model, heavily reliant on remittances and consumer spending rather than exports, remains a fundamental challenge. Historical decisions, such as the nationalization of industries during Bhutto’s era, still cast long shadows over the business environment, deterring investment and fostering a culture of economic stagnation. The current investment to GDP ratio is a dismal 13%, a clear indicator of the political instability and economic policies that have stunted growth for decades.

In response to the inflation crisis, the government enacted emergency measures, including reducing petrol prices and stabilizing the dollar. These actions, influenced by consumer behavior, global market trends, and a wheat surplus, have provided temporary relief. However, the business community argues that the State Bank’s high interest rate of 22% should be reduced to between 15% and 17%, aligning with economic principles that suggest interest rates should approximate the inflation rate to foster business growth and industrial activity.

Lowering the interest rate could indeed spur economic activity, promoting growth in key sectors such as textiles and automobiles. Yet, the government faces a dilemma: reducing interest rates might lead to increased imports of machinery and raw materials, potentially exacerbating the current account deficit and depleting foreign reserves, which currently stand at a tenuous $9 billion. This delicate balance between stimulating the economy and maintaining fiscal stability highlights the paradox of Pakistan’s economic strategy.

At the heart of this economic conundrum is a glaring issue: the disproportionate privileges enjoyed by Pakistan’s elite. According to a UNDP report, elite privileges drain $17.4 billion from the economy annually, a burden borne by a populace that sees little return in terms of public services or economic opportunity. This elite capture, coupled with a lack of tax contributions, perpetuates inequality and hampers meaningful economic reforms.

To navigate these turbulent waters, Pakistan must embark on a path of comprehensive reforms. Reducing government expenditures, cutting unnecessary perks for officials, and stabilizing the political landscape are imperative steps toward attracting foreign investment and fostering a more inclusive economic environment. Without addressing these core issues, any temporary relief in inflation or other macroeconomic indicators will remain just that—temporary.

A multi-faceted approach is necessary for long-term economic stability. First, the government must prioritize the development of a robust export-oriented economy. Investing in infrastructure, enhancing trade policies, and providing incentives for industries with export potential can diversify revenue sources beyond remittances and consumer spending. This shift would mitigate the vulnerabilities associated with a domestic consumption-driven economy and bolster foreign exchange reserves.

Second, there is a pressing need for comprehensive tax reform. Expanding the tax base, improving tax collection mechanisms, and ensuring that the wealthy pay their fair share would generate the necessary revenue for public services and infrastructure development. This approach would also reduce the fiscal deficit and reliance on international loans, fostering greater economic independence.

Third, addressing the structural inefficiencies within the agricultural sector can play a crucial role in stabilizing the economy. Implementing modern farming techniques, improving water management, and providing farmers with access to affordable credit can significantly enhance agricultural productivity. A thriving agricultural sector not only supports food security but also contributes to export revenues.

Fourth, the government must tackle corruption and bureaucratic inefficiencies that stifle economic growth. Establishing transparent governance practices, streamlining regulatory frameworks, and holding officials accountable can create a more favorable business environment. This would encourage both domestic and foreign investment, driving economic growth and job creation.

Fifth, investment in education and vocational training is essential to develop a skilled workforce capable of meeting the demands of a modern economy. By aligning educational curricula with market needs and promoting entrepreneurship, Pakistan can harness the potential of its young population, fostering innovation and economic dynamism.

Finally, fostering political stability is paramount. Consistent policies, a commitment to democratic principles, and the protection of property rights can build investor confidence. A stable political environment is a prerequisite for long-term economic planning and sustainable development.

Pakistan stands at a critical juncture. The recent drop in inflation offers a glimmer of hope, but it is not an endpoint. It is a call to action for deeper, more enduring changes that can transform the economic landscape from one of recurring crises to sustained


Noor ul Ain Ali

Noor ul Ain Ali is a freelance writer.

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